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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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The remaining glaciers of Prince William Sound are those in (1) Port Nellie Juan, (2) Icy Bay, (8) the islands of southwestern and southern Prince William Sound, and (4) the fiords on its eastern side. Port Nellie Juan and Icy Bay are fiords south of Passage Canal in which terminate good-sized glaciers from the snowfields of the Kenai Peninsula. There are small local glaciers on Knight and Montague Islands, which are respectively east and southeast of Icy Bay. The fiords on the eastern side of Prince William Sound contain small-sized glaciers, which extend westward from the snowfields of the Chugach Mountains.
The National Geographic Society's 1910 expedition did much less work on the glaciers described in this chapter than in the other parts of Prince William Sound, and the discussion will, therefore, be very brief, especially as the ice tongues are much smaller than those in the fiords thus far described.
Acknowledgment has already been made of the full use of the photographs, maps, and brief reviews of results of work by Grant and Higgins, which we had for use in the field. While writing the final draft of this chapter we also had before us their preliminary account, published in 1911, and have made use of their results for the general description of the glaciers which is necessary for an understanding of the brief observations and interpretations we were able to make in 1910. The failure of our supply of gasoline made it necessary to confine our detailed field work to the glaciers in the outer portions of Port Nellie Juan and Icy Bay, and to abandon all sounding after leaving Passage Canal and Culross Passage. Our description of the ice tongues in Port Nellie Juan and Icy Bay is supplemented by the work of Grant and Higgins, and by earlier observations of Portlock, Vancouver, Seton Karr, Applegate, Glenn, Perkins, and others.
The descriptions of the glaciers of Knight and Montague Islands and of the fiords of eastern Prince William Sound, which no one has thus far visited, except for a hurried trip up Port Fidalgo by Schrader, are based upon our views from a distance.
The charts of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey furnish data for the interpretation of submarine topography, the latter topic being partly postponed for discussion in the chapter on the glaciation of Prince William Sound.
Topography. Port Nellie Juan, which is connected with Passage Canal by Culross Passage, consists of three parts:(a) an outer portion, trending northeast-southwest